Bauer, A. Eder, G.
Barker , Kevin O. Douglass , Stephen P.
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In our vision of small—scale engineering, articles made from new ultrafine-grained materials would be produced by microcutting and microforming. Another major advantage of the SPD processes is its ability to create entirely new materials with special inner architecture, unachievable by other manufacturing methods. SPD offers the possibility of material transport within the workpiece and mechanically driven solid-state chemical reactions induced by large plastic deformations under high pressure — precisely the features Bridgman has highlighted in his seminal work.
The ways in which novel hybrid materials with rich inner architecture can be synthesized by using SPD techniques were outlined in a recent overview . Figure 1 illustrates some phenomena which promote SPD-induced synthesis and compares them with those found in nature.
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Striking similarities between patterning in natural rock masses and metal multilayers deformed by HPT were highlighted in a most recent publication . The possibility of creating pre-conceived microstructural patterns offered by SPD enables the realisation of the idea [11,12] that a superior combination of properties can be achieved by producing heterogeneities and gradient structures. Image b — courtesy Dr. Lukyanova; images d, f — courtesy Dr. The small size of SPD equipment for manufacturing of minute parts means that it can be used on a laboratory benchtop or even an office desktop — making it as accessible as desktop manufacturing by 3D printing .
Paraphrasing the famous maxim of Richard Feynman, there is a lot of space three orders of magnitude! We hope that this communication will attract the attention of researchers, engineers, and entrepreneurs to this manufacturing avenue.
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Re-directing the efforts at upscaling SPD technologies to downscaling will enable industrial applications of SPD processing in microfabrication, which is arguably one of the most promising manufacturing areas. We believe that severe plastic deformation technologies are to become a major vehicle for fabrication at a millimeter and submillimeter scale. Publishers' note: Article updated 15th January to replace incorrectly rendered symbols.
Think big, manufacture small: microfabrication on a desktop by severe plastic deformation 12 January Yuri Estrin, Roman Kulagin, Yan Beygelzimer. Figure 1. Pattern formation in nature and SPD-induced materials synthesis. The lower row displays examples of articles which can be produced by SPD-assisted microfabrication.
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A higher resolution figure may be found below the article. Further Reading Bridgman, P.
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Effects of high shearing stress combined with high hydrostatic pressure. Valiev, R. Nanostructuring of metals by severe plastic deformation for advanced properties. Nature Mater. Estrin, Y. Extreme grain refinement by severe plastic deformation: A wealth of challenging science. Acta Mater.
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Materials science: nanomaterial advantage. Nature — Huang, Y. Advances in ultrafine-grained materials, Materials Today 16 , Liddicoat, P. Nanostructural hierarchy increases the strength of aluminium alloys, Nature Comm.
Kahn, H. Materials issues in MEMS. Materials Today 2 ,