Manual Progress in Sustainable Energy Technologies Vol II: Creating Sustainable Development

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The year saw the beginning of the first generation of commercial Ocean energy devices, with the first units being installed in the UK-SeaGen and Portugal-Pelamis. Figure 1 shows the opportunities of renewable energy sources towards sustainable development. The notion of energy security is generally used, however there is no consensus on its precise interpretation.

Given the interdependence of economic growth and energy consumption, access to a stable energy supply is of importance to the political world and a technical and monetary challenge for both developed and developing countries, because prolonged interferences would generate serious economic and basic functionality difficulties for most societies Edenhofer et al. Renewable energy sources are evenly distributed around the globe as compared to fossils and in general less traded on the market. The introduction of renewable energy can also make contribution to increasing the reliability of energy services, to be specific in areas that often suffer from insufficient grid access.

A diverse portfolio of energy sources together with good management and system design can help to enhance security Edenhofer et al. Generally, the energy sector has been perceived as a key to economic development with a strong correlation between economic growth and expansion of energy consumption. Globally, per capita incomes are positively correlated with per capita energy use and economic growth can be identified as the most essential factor behind increasing energy consumption in the last decades. It in turn creates employment; renewable energy study in , proved that employment from renewable energy technologies was about 2.

The sustainable development goal seven affordable and clean energy seeks to ensure that energy is clean, affordable, available and accessible to all and this can be achieved with renewable energy source since they are generally distributed across the globe. Access concerns need to be understood in a local context and in most countries there is an obvious difference between electrification in the urban and rural areas, this is especially true in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian region Brew-Hammond, Distributed grids based on the renewable energy are generally more competitive in rural areas with significant distances to the national grid and the low levels of rural electrification offer substantial openings for renewable energy-based mini-grid systems to provide them with electricity access Edenhofer et al.

Renewable energy sources used in energy generation helps to reduce greenhouse gases which mitigates climate change, reduce environmental and health complications associated with pollutants from fossil fuel sources of energy. Nevertheless, there was variation in individual member countries, while there was a decrease in GHG emissions in 22 EEA countries, there was an increase in 11 EEA countries. Figure 4 shows United States carbon dioxide gas emissions from — Figure 2 shows an example of carbon dioxide emission levels being reduced from — in United States, a shift from mainly fossil fuel-based energy sources to renewable energy sources United States Environmental Protection Agency, Renewable energy sources could become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies.

Disruptive alterations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable Energy sources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the twenty-first century Verbruggen et al. Figure 5 shows the interconnection of factors affecting renewable energy supplies and sustainability. In addition, technological innovations affect the cost of renewable energy technologies which in turn leads to market failures and low patronization of the renewable energy technology.

In the light of this, an effective renewable energy policy should take the interconnection of factors affecting renewable energy supplies and sustainability into consideration. Interconnection of factors affecting renewable energy supplies and sustainability, adapted from Edenhofer et al. Reducing our carbon footprint through the changes in lifestyle and behaviour patterns can contribute a great deal to the mitigation of climate change.

Research into innovations and technologies that can reduce land use and also reduce accidents from renewable energy sources and the risk of resource competition, for example in Bioenergy where food for consumption competing with energy production. Enhancing international cooperation and support for developing countries towards the expansion of infrastructure and upgrading technology for modern supply and sustainable energy services as a way of mitigating climate change and its impacts.

Sustainable Energy For All

The return-to-renewables will help mitigate climate change is an excellent way but needs to be sustainable in order to ensure a sustainable future for generations to meet their energy needs. The aim of the paper was to ascertain if renewable energy sources were sustainable and how a shift from fossil fuel-based energy sources to renewable energy sources would help reduce climate change and its impact.

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A qualitative research was employed by reviewing papers in the scope of the study. Even though, the complete lifecycle of renewable energy sources have no net emissions which will help limit future global greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, the cost, price, political environment and market conditions have become barriers preventing developing, least developed and developed countries to fully utilize its potentials. In this way, a creation of global opportunity through international cooperation that supports least developed and developing countries towards the accessibility of renewable energy, energy efficiency, clean energy technology and research and energy infrastructure investment will reduce the cost of renewable energy, eliminate barriers to energy efficiency high discount rate and promote new potentials towards climate change mitigation.

The study brought to light the opportunities associated with renewable energy sources; energy security, energy access, social and economic development and climate change mitigation and reduction of environmental and health impacts. There are challenges that tend to hinder the sustainability of renewable energy sources and its ability to mitigate climate change. These challenges are: market failures, lack of information, access to raw materials for future renewable resource deployment, and most importantly our humans way of utilizing energy in an inefficient way.

Changes in our use of energy in a more efficient way as individuals, countries and the world as a whole. Efforts that aim at increasing the share of renewable energy and clean fossil fuel technologies into global energy portfolio will help reduce climate change and its impacts. Energy efficiency programmes should be introduced globally, which give tax exemptions to firms who prove to provide energy efficiency initiatives energy-efficient homes , product design energy-efficient equipment and services industrial combined heat and power.

Introducing the concept of usability, adaptability and accessibility into energy-dependent product design is a way of promoting energy efficient behaviours. Increase research in these areas, so that the fear of some renewables posing risks in the future is limited. Improve education, awareness-raising and human institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning. Developed countries should incorporate decarbonization policies and strategies into the industry, energy, agricultural, forest, health, transport, water resource, building and other sectors that have potential of increasing greenhouse gas emissions.

Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy

Efforts in developing countries aimed at improving institutional training, strengthening institutions and improving capacity of research on climate change will increase awareness, promote adaptation and sustainable development. Least developed countries should develop and test tools and methods with a global support that direct policy and decision-making for climate change mitigation, adaptation and early warnings.

Supporting a global dialogue through international cooperation and partnership with developed, developing and least developed countries will promote the development, dissemination and transfer of environmentally friendly technologies, innovation and technology, access to science, and among others which will increase the mutual agreement towards combating climate change and its impacts.

If these suggestions are implemented, the sustainability of renewable energy resources would be addressed as well as the seventh and thirteenth goal of sustainable development which seeks to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, modern energy for all and combat climate change and its impact. You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.

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Abstract Abstract The world is fast becoming a global village due to the increasing daily requirement of energy by all population across the world while the earth in its form cannot change. Subjects Bio Energy Clean Tech Clean Technologies Environmental Renewable Energy Keywords Keywords renewable energy sources climate change mitigation sustainability issues clean energy carbon footprint environmental sustainability engineering. Public Interest Statement Energy is a requirement in our everyday life as a way of improving human development leading to economic growth and productivity.

Introduction The world is fast becoming a global village due to the increasing daily requirement of energy by all population across the world while the earth in its form cannot change. Renewable energy sources and sustainability Renewable energy sources replenish themselves naturally without being depleted in the earth; they include bioenergy, hydropower, geothermal energy, solar energy, wind energy and ocean tide and wave energy. Table 1. Renewable energy sources and their use Panwar et al.

Renewable energy sources and technology Renewable energy sources are energy sources from natural and persistent flow of energy happening in our immediate environment.

Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI)

Hydropower Hydropower is an essential energy source harnessed from water moving from higher to lower elevation levels, primarily to turn turbines and generate electricity. Hydropower environmental and social impact Hydropower generation does not produce greenhouse gases and thus mostly termed as a green source of energy.

Bioenergy Bioenergy is a renewable energy source derived from biological sources. Bioenergy source potential Biomass has a large potential, which meets the goal of reducing greenhouse gases and could insure fuel supply in the future. Bioenergy environmental and social impact The use of biological components plant and animal source to produce energy has always been a cause of worry especially to the general public and as to whether its food produce are to be used to provide fuel since there are cases of food aid needed around the world in deprived countries.

Ocean energy tide and wave Surface waves are created when wind passes over water Ocean. Challenges affecting renewable energy sources Renewable energy sources could become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Conclusion Energy is a requirement in our everyday life as a way of improving human development leading to economic growth and productivity.

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