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  • Philosophy.

It stops at neither the limits of scientific investigation nor those of ordinary experience. To do speculative philosophy is to ask whether there is anything more to reality rather than that which is revealed by science and ordinary experience.

I. Definition

The objective of speculative philosophy is to comprehend the whole of reality by means of reason, so if reason requires that speculative philosophers go beyond the limits of science and ordinary experience in order to account for the whole of reality, then they do so. Reason is the primary tool of speculative philosophy.

Method of philosophy vs science

It stops at neither the limits of scientific investigation nor those of ordinary experience. To do speculative philosophy is to ask whether there is anything more to reality rather than that which is revealed by science and ordinary experience.

The objective of speculative philosophy is to comprehend the whole of reality by means of reason, so if reason requires that speculative philosophers go beyond the limits of science and ordinary experience in order to account for the whole of reality, then they do so. Reason is the primary tool of speculative philosophy.


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  6. When 1 , 2 , and 4 are considered, the field is the central area of logic that is variously known as first-order logic, quantification theory, lower predicate calculus , lower functional calculus, or elementary logic. Borderline cases between logical and nonlogical constants are the following among others : 1 Higher order quantification, which means quantification not over the individuals belonging to a given universe of discourse, as in first-order logic, but also over sets of individuals and sets of n -tuples of individuals.

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    Alternatively, the properties and relations that specify these sets may be quantified over. This gives rise to second-order logic. The process can be repeated. Quantification over sets of such sets or of n -tuples of such sets or over properties and relations of such sets as are considered in second-order logic gives rise to third-order logic; and all logics of finite order form together the simple theory of finite types.

    This narrower sense of logic is related to the influential idea of logical form. In any given sentence, all of the nonlogical terms may be replaced by variables of the appropriate type, keeping only the logical constants intact. The result is a formula exhibiting the logical form of the sentence.

    2. History of the Term and the Concept of Information

    If the formula results in a true sentence for any substitution of interpreted terms of the appropriate logical type for the variables, the formula and the sentence are said to be logically true in the narrower sense of the expression. Philosophy of logic. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents.

    Workshop: Formalization in Philosophy II

    Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Logic as a discipline Nature and varieties of logic Features and problems of logic Logical semantics Limitations of logic Logic and computability Issues and developments in the philosophy of logic Meaning and truth Logical semantics of modal concepts Intensional logic Logic and information Problems of ontology Individuation Existence and ontology Alternative logics Logic and other disciplines Technical disciplines Mathematics Computers Methodology of the empirical sciences Human disciplines Linguistics Psychology Law Education.